Xử lý asen bằng vật liệu nano

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Các nhà khoa học thuộc Viện Nước, Tưới tiêu và Môi trường vừa chế tạo thành công thiết bị ứng dụng vật liệu nano để xử lý nước nhiễm asen (thạch tín) và nước vùng ngập lũ phục vụ cấp nước sinh hoạt nông thôn.

enter site ​Nhiều công trình nghiên cứu điều tra về nguồn gốc asen có trong nước ngầm, mức độ ô nhiễm, chu trình vận chuyển… đã tìm thấy nồng độ asen trong các mẫu nước khảo sát ở khu vực thượng lưu sông Mã, Sơn La, Phú Thọ, Bắc Giang, Hưng Yên, Hà Nội, Hà Nam, Nam Định, Thanh Hóa… đều vượt tiêu chuẩn cho phép đối với  nước sinh hoạt của quốc tế  và Việt Nam.

 
Kết quả điều tra thực tế cách đây 3 năm tại Thái Bình, Nam Định, Hà Tây (cũ), Hà Nam cho thấy, trên 30% dân số khu vực nông thôn tại các tỉnh trên sử dụng nguồn nước giếng bị ô nhiễm asen để phục vụ sinh hoạt, nồng độ asen trong nước vượt từ 5 – 20 lần nồng độ asen trong nước ăn uống theo tiêu chuẩn 1329/BYT. Hai tỉnh Hà Tây (cũ) và Hà Nam bị ô nhiễm asen trong nước ngầm với tỷ lệ cao nhất.
 
Trong khi đó, theo ước tính của Quỹ Nhi đồng Liên Hợp Quốc (UNICEF), tại Việt Nam hiện nay, số người có nguy cơ mắc bệnh do tiếp xúc với thạch tín lên tới 10 triệu người. Asen tích lũy trong cơ thể gây tác động đến các vùng chính: Hệ tiêu hóa, da, hệ thần kinh, dây thần kinh vận động, từ đó làm tăng nguy cơ mắc các bệnh về thần kinh, gan, thiếu máu, rối loạn chuyển hóa protein và đường, sừng hóa da và điều đáng lo ngại nhất là dẫn đến ung thư da, phổi, bàng quang và thận.
Việc xử lý asen trong nước ngầm, nước sinh hoạt đã được đặt ra nhiều năm nay. Nhiều phương pháp đã được áp dụng, như xử lý bằng bể lắng, lọc, bằng giàn mưa song các cách này chưa giải quyết triệt để asen. Đã có một số thiết bị lọc nước nội địa được các nhà khoa học chế tạo. Công nghệ lọc nước nano đã được thế giới áp dụng, được “nội địa hóa” với giá thành chỉ bằng 50-70% giá nhập ngoại.
PGS.TS. Hà Lương Thuần, Chủ nhiệm đề tài cho biết, thiết bị lọc nước gồm vỏ, lõi lọc và phụ kiện. Nước nhiễm asen được đưa vào ống dẫn nước vào của máy lọc, sau đó nước được đẩy vào phía trong lõi lọc nano theo hướng đi từ dưới lên, phía bên trên của lõi lọc nano có nhiều khe hở để dòng nước sau xử lý chảy tràn qua không gian giữa thân máy và lõi nano. Nước sạch chảy vào lỗ thu nước ra và theo vòi ra để đưa vào sử dụng. Hoạt động của thiết bị khá đơn giản và tiện sử dụng để có thể lắp đặt vào các vị trí khác nhau.
 
Đối với nguồn nước sinh hoạt của người dân ở các khu vực thành thị khi sử dụng chỉ cần nối vòi nước sử dụng với ống nước vào thiết bị, sau đó nước ra khỏi thiết bị là có thể sử dụng cho mục đích ăn uống và sinh hoạt. Với nguồn nước sinh hoạt không tập trung và chất lượng nước đầu vào không ổn như ở các vùng nông thôn của nước ta thì cần bổ sung bộ phận lọc thô như bể lọc cát, cột lọc thô trước khi nước vào thiết bị để tăng tuổi thọ của thiết bị nếu không lõi sẽ nhanh chóng bị tắc và không sử dụng được.
 
Ưu điểm của thiết bị này chính là lõi lọc nano cacbon, có khả năng lọc những hạt rất nhỏ, kích cỡ nanomet, tạo thành một dạng màng lọc. Cacbon có khả năng lọc sạch nước.
 
Đến nay, các nhà khoa học đã sản xuất thành công nhiều loại thiết bị lọc quy mô gia đình (60-80 lít/h); lọc xách tay phục vụ khu vực ngập lũ, có thể di chuyển, mang vác dễ dàng; hệ thống xử lý nước phục vụ sinh hoạt quy mô 1,5m3, có thể di chuyển trên thuyền hoặc xe để phục vụ lọc nước sinh hoạt trong điều kiện ngập lũ…
source link Công ty môi trường Mỹ Hà chuyên nhận xử lý khí thải với giá thành rẻ nhất, hãy gọi cho công ty chúng tôi để được tư vấn hoàn toàn miễn phí. LH 0988 277 153.

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